(a) Distinguish between ionic and covalent compounds under the
(i) Strength of forces between constituent elements
(ii) Solubility of compounds in water
(iii) Electrical conduction in substances
(b) Explain how the following metals are obtained from their
compounds by the reduction process:
(i) Metal M which is in the middle of the reactivity
(ii) Metal N which is high up in the reactivity series.
Give one example of each type
(a) Distinguish between ‘roasting’ and
‘calcination’. Which of these two is used for
sulphide ores and why?
(b) Write a chemical equation to illustrate the use of
aluminium for joining cracked railway lines.
(c) Name the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte used in
the electrolytic refining of impure copper.
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