NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths Unit 3

Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Class 10

Unit 3 Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Exercise 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7 Solutions

If two linear equations have the two same variables, they are called a pair of linear equations in two variables. Following is the most general form of linear equations: Here, a1, a2, b1, b2, c1 and c2 are real numbers such that; A pair of linear equations can be represented and solved by the following methods:

1. Graphical method
2. Algebraic method

Exercise 3.1 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 44

Q1 :

Aftab tells his daughter, "Seven years ago, I was seven times as old as you were then. Also, three years from now, I shall be three times as old as you will be." (Isn't this interesting?) Represent this situation algebraically and graphically.

Let the present age of Aftab be x.

And, present age of his daughter = y

Seven years ago,

Age of Aftab = x - 7

Age of his daughter = y - 7

According to the question, Three years hence,

Age of Aftab = x + 3

Age of his daughter = y + 3

According to the question, Therefore, the algebraic representation is For , The solution table is

 x - 7 0 7 y 5 6 7

For , The solution table is

 x 6 3 0 y 0 - 1 - 2

The graphical representation is as follows. Q2 :

The coach of a cricket team buys 3 bats and 6 balls for Rs 3900. Later, she buys another bat and 3 more balls of the same kind for Rs 1300. Represent this situation algebraically and geometrically.

Let the cost of a bat be Rs x.

And, cost of a ball = Rs y

According to the question, the algebraic representation is

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For , The solution table is

 x 300 100 -100 y 500 600 700

For x+ 3y = 1300,

x = 1300 - 2y

The solution table is

 x 400 700 1000 y 300 200 100

The graphical representation for first line is as follows. And graph for second line will be, Q3 :

The cost of 2 kg of apples and 1 kg of grapes on a day was found to be Rs 160. After a month, the cost of 4 kg of apples and 2 kg of grapes is Rs 300. Represent the situation algebraically and geometrically.

Exercise 3.2 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 49

Q1 :

Form the pair of linear equations in the following problems, and find their solutions graphically.

(i) 10 students of Class X took part in a Mathematics quiz. If the number of girls is 4 more than the number of boys, find the number of boys and girls who took part in the quiz.

(ii) 5 pencils and 7 pens together cost Rs 50, whereas 7 pencils and 5 pens together cost Rs 46. Find the cost of one pencil and that of one pen.

Q2 :

On comparing the ratios , find out whether the lines representing the following pairs of linear equations at a point, are parallel or coincident:   Q3 :

On comparing the ratios , find out whether the following pair of linear equations are consistent, or inconsistent. Q4 :

Which of the following pairs of linear equations are consistent/ inconsistent? If consistent, obtain the solution graphically: Q5 :

Half the perimeter of a rectangular garden, whose length is 4 m more than its width, is 36 m. Find the dimensions of the garden.

Q6 :

Given the linear equation 2x + 3y - 8 = 0, write another linear equations in two variables such that the geometrical representation of the pair so formed is:

(i) intersecting lines (ii) parallel lines

(iii) coincident lines

Q7 :

Draw the graphs of the equations x - y + 1 = 0 and 3x + 2y - 12 = 0. Determine the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle formed by these lines and the x-axis, and shade the triangular region.

Exercise 3.3 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 53

Q1 :

Solve the following pair of linear equations by the substitution method. Q2 :

Solve 2x + 3y = 11 and 2x - 4y = - 24 and hence find the value of 'm' for which y = mx + 3.

Q3 :

Solve 2x + 3y = 11 and 2x - 4y = - 24 and hence find the value of 'm' for which y = mx + 3.

Q4 :

Exercise 3.4 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 56

Q1 :

Solve the following pair of linear equations by the elimination method and the substitution method:    Q2 :

Form the pair of linear equations in the following problems, and find their solutions (if they exist) by the elimination method:

(i) If we add 1 to the numerator and subtract 1 from the denominator, a fraction reduces to 1. It becomes if we only add 1 to the denominator. What is the fraction?

(ii) Five years ago, Nuri was thrice as old as Sonu. Ten years later, Nuri will be twice as old as Sonu. How old are Nuri and Sonu?

(iii) The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 9. Also, nine times this number is twice the number obtained by reversing the order of the digits. Find the number.

(iv) Meena went to bank to withdraw Rs 2000. She asked the cashier to give her Rs 50 and Rs 100 notes only. Meena got 25 notes in all. Find how many notes of Rs 50 and Rs 100 she received.

(v) A lending library has a fixed charge for the first three days and an additional charge for each day thereafter. Saritha paid Rs 27 for a book kept for seven days, while Susy paid Rs 21 for the book she kept for five days. Find the fixed charge and the charge for each extra day.

Exercise 3.5 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 62

Q1 :

Which of the following pairs of linear equations has unique solution, no solution or infinitely many solutions? In case there is a unique solution, find it by using cross multiplication method. Q2 :

(i) For which values of a and b will the following pair of linear equations have an

infinite number of solutions? (ii) For which value of k will the following pair of linear equations have no solution? Q3 :

Solve the following pair of linear equations by the substitution and cross-multiplication methods: Q4 :

Form the pair of linear equations in the following problems and find their solutions (if they exist) by any algebraic method:

(i)A part of monthly hostel charges is fixed and the remaining depends on the number of days one has taken food in the mess. When a student A takes food for 20 days she has to pay Rs 1000 as hostel charges whereas a student B, who takes food for 26 days, pays Rs 1180 as hostel charges. Find the fixed charges and the cost of food per day.

(ii)A fraction becomes when 1 is subtracted from the numerator and it becomes when 8 is added to its denominator. Find the fraction.

(iii)Yash scored 40 marks in a test, getting 3 marks for each right answer and losing 1 mark for each wrong answer. Had 4 marks been awarded for each correct answer and 2 marks been deducted for each incorrect answer, then Yash would have scored 50 marks. How many questions were there in the test?

(iv) Places A and B are 100 km apart on a highway. One car starts from A and another from B at the same time. If the cars travel in the same direction at different speeds, they meet in 5 hours. If they travel towards each other, they meet in 1 hour. What are the speeds of the two cars?

(v)The area of a rectangle gets reduced by 9 square units, if its length is reduced by 5 units and breadth is increased by 3 units. If we increase the length by 3 units and the breadth by 2 units, the area increases by 67 square units. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.

Exercise 3.6 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 67

Q1 :

Solve the following pairs of equations by reducing them to a pair of linear equations:        Q2 :

Formulate the following problems as a pair of equations, and hence find their solutions:

(i) Ritu can row downstream 20 km in 2 hours, and upstream 4 km in 2 hours. Find her speed of rowing in still water and the speed of the current.

(ii) 2 women and 5 men can together finish an embroidery work in 4 days, while 3 women and 6 men can finish it in 3 days. Find the time taken by 1 woman alone to finish the work, and also that taken by 1 man alone.

(iii) Roohi travels 300 km to her home partly by train and partly by bus. She takes 4 hours if she travels 60 km by train and remaining by bus. If she travels 100 km by train and the remaining by bus, she takes 10 minutes longer. Find the speed of the train and the bus separately.

Exercise 3.7 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 68

Q1 :

The ages of two friends Ani and Biju differ by 3 years. Ani's father Dharam is twice as old as Ani and Biju is twice as old as his sister Cathy. The ages of Cathy and Dharam differs by 30 years. Find the ages of Ani and Biju.

Q2 :

One says, "Give me a hundred, friend! I shall then become twice as rich as you". The other replies, "If you give me ten, I shall be six times as rich as you". Tell me what is the amount of their (respective) capital? [From the Bijaganita of Bhaskara II)

[Hint: x + 100 = 2 (y - 100), y + 10 = 6(x - 10)]

Q3 :

A train covered a certain distance at a uniform speed. If the train would have been 10 km/h faster, it would have taken 2 hours less than the scheduled time. And if the train were slower by 10 km/h; it would have taken 3 hours more than the scheduled time. Find the distance covered by the train.

Q4 :

The students of a class are made to stand in rows. If 3 students are extra in a row, there would be 1 row less. If 3 students are less in a row, there would be 2 rows more. Find the number of students in the class.

Q5 :

In a ΔABC, ∠ C = 3 ∠ B = 2 (∠ A + ∠ B). Find the three angles.

Q6 :

Draw the graphs of the equations 5x - y = 5 and 3x - y = 3. Determine the co-ordinates of the vertices of the triangle formed by these lines and the y axis.

Q7 :

Solve the following pair of linear equations.

(i) px + qy = p - q

qx - py = p + q

(ii) ax + by = c

bx + ay = 1 + c

(iii) ax + by = a2 + b2

(iv) (a - b) x + (a + b) y = a2 - 2ab - b2

(a + b) (x + y) = a2 + b2

(v) 152x - 378y = - 74

- 378x + 152y = - 604

Q8 :

ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral finds the angles of the cyclic quadrilateral. 