NCERT Solutions of Metals and Non-metals Class 10
<< Reactivity SeriesHow Do Metals React With Non-Metals >>

Class ten Science CBSE

Metals and Non-metals

Non-Metals: Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical properties of non-metals

  • Hardness: Non-metals are not hard rather they are generally soft. But diamond is exception; it is most hard naturally occurring substance.
  • State:- Non-metals may be solid, liquid or gas.
  • Luster:- Non-metals has dull appearance. Diamond and iodine are exceptions.
  • Sound:- Non-metals do not produce ringing sound.
  • Conduction:- Non-metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity. Graphite which is allotrope of carbon is good conductor of electricity, it is an exception.
  • Malleability and ductility:- Non-metals are brittle.
  • Melting and boiling point:- Non-metals have generally low melting and boiling points.
  • Density:- Most of the non-metals have low density.
  • Color:- Non-metals are of many colors.

Chemical properties of Non-metals

Reaction of non-metals with oxygen:- Non-metals form respective oxide when react with oxygen.

reaction of non-metal with oxygen

Example:-

(1) When carbon reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed along with production of heat.

reaction of carbon with oxygen

(2) When carbon is burnt in insufficient supply of air, it forms carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic substance. Inhaling of carbon monoxide may prove fatal.

burning of carbon in insufficient oxygen

(3) Sulphur gives sulphur dioxide when react with oxygen. Sulphur caught fire when exposed to air.

reaction of sulphur with oxygen

(3) When hydrogen reacts with oxygen it gives water.

reaction of hydrogen with oxygen

Non-metal oxide:-

Non-metal oxides are acidic in nature. Solution of non-metal oxides turns blue litmus red.

Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid when dissolved in water.

reaction of carbon dioxide with water formation of carbonic acid

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphurous acid when dissolved in water.

reaction of sulphur dioxide with water

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphur trioxide when reacts with oxygen.

reaction of sulphur dioxide with oxygen

Sulphur trioxide gives sulphuric acid when dissolved in water.

reaction of sulphur trioxide with water

Reaction of non-metal with chlorine:

Non metals give respective chloride when react with chlorine gas.

reaction of Non metal with chlorine'

Example:

Hydrogen gives hydrogen chloride and phosphorous gives phosphorous trichloride when react with chlorine.

reaction of hydrogen and phosphorous with chlorine
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NCERT Solutions of Metals and Non-metals Class 10
<< Reactivity SeriesHow Do Metals React With Non-Metals >>

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