NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Unit 3

Metals and Non-metals Class 10

Unit 3 Metals and Non-metals Exercise Solutions

Elements are divided mainly into two groups on the basis of physical and chemical properties Metal and Non-metal.

Metals are commonly:
  • Shiny
  • Good conductor of heat and electricity
  • High melting point
  • Malleable (this means that they can be hammered or distorted)
  • Ductile (this means that they can be drawn into wires)
  • Usually solid at room temperature. An exception to this is mercury, which is liquid in nature.
  • Generally have low electronegativities
  • for example :- Aluminium,Gold,Copper,Silver,Sodium,Potassium,Mercury,etc
Non-metals generally have the opposite characteristics:
  • Not shiny
  • Usually poor conductors of heat and electricity
  • May be solids, liquids, or gas at room temperature
  • Generally have high electronegativities
  • Non-ductile and brittle solids

<< Previous Chapter 2 : Acids, Bases and Salts Next Chapter 4 : Carbon and its Compounds >>

Question : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 40

Q1 :  

Give an example of a metal which

(i) is a liquid at room temperature.

(ii) can be easily cut with a knife.

(iii) is the best conductor of heat.

(iv) is a poor conductor of heat.


Answer :

(i) Metal that exists in liquid state at room temperature Mercury

(ii) Metal that can be easily cut with a knife Sodium

(iii) Metal that is the best conductor of heat Silver

(iv) Metals that are poor conductors of heat Mercury and lead

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Q2 :  

Explain the meanings of malleable and ductile.


Answer :

Malleable:Substances that can be beaten into thin sheets are called malleable. For example, most of the metals are malleable.

Ductile: Substances that can be drawn into thin wires are called ductile. For example, most of the metals are ductile.

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Q3 :  

Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene oil?


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Q4 :  

Write equations for the reactions of

(i) iron with steam

(ii) calcium and potassium with water


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Q5 :  

Samples of four metals A, B, C and D were taken and added to the following solution one by one. The results obtained have been tabulated as follows.

Metal

Iron (II) sulphate

Cooper (II) sulphate

Zinc sulphate

Silver nitrate

A.

No reaction

Displacement

B.

Displacement

No reaction

C.

No reaction

No reaction

No reaction

Displacement

D.

No reaction

No reaction

No reaction

No reaction

Use the Table above to answer the following questions about metals A, B, C and D.

(i) Which is the most reactive metal?

(ii) What would you observe if B is added to a solution of copper (II) sulphate?

(iii) Arrange the metals A, B, C and D in the order of decreasing reactivity.


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Q6 :  

Which gas is produced when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a reactive metal? Write the chemical reaction when iron reacts with dilute H2SO4.


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Q7 :  

What would you observe when zinc is added to a solution of iron (II) sulphate? Write the chemical reaction that takes place.


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Q8 :  

(i) Write the electron-dot structures for sodium, oxygen and magnesium.

(ii) Show the formation of Na2O and MgO by the transfer of electrons.

(iii) What are the ions present in these compounds?


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Q9 :  

Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?


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Q10 :  

Define the following terms.

(i) Mineral (ii) Ore (iii) Gangue


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Q11 :  

Name two metals which are found in nature in the free state.


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Q12 :  

What chemical process is used for obtaining a metal from its oxide?


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Q13 :  

Metallic oxides of zinc, magnesium and copper were heated with the following metals.

Metal

Zinc

Magnesium

Copper

Zinc oxide

-

-

-

Magnesium oxide

-

-

-

Copper oxide

-

-

-

In which cases will you find displacement reactions taking place?


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Q14 :  

Which metals do not corrode easily?


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Q15 :  

What are alloys?


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<< Previous Chapter 2 : Acids, Bases and Salts Next Chapter 4 : Carbon and its Compounds >>

Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 56

Q1 :  

Which of the following pairs will give displacement reactions?

(a) NaCl solution and copper metal

(b) MgCl2solution and aluminium metal

(c) FeSO4solution and silver metal

(d) AgNO3solution and copper metal.


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Q2 :  

Which of the following methods is suitable for preventing an iron frying pan from rusting?

(a) Applying grease

(b) Applying paint

(c) Applying a coating of zinc

(d) all of the above.


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Q3 :  

An element reacts with oxygen to give a compound with a high melting point. This compound is also soluble in water. The element is likely to be

(a) calcium

(b) carbon

(c) silicon

(d) iron


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Q4 :  

Food cans are coated with tin and not with zinc because

(a) zinc is costlier than tin.

(b) zinc has a higher melting point than tin.

(c) zinc is more reactive than tin.

(d) zinc is less reactive than tin.


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Q5 :  

You are given a hammer, a battery, a bulb, wires and a switch.

(a) How could you use them to distinguish between samples of metals and non-metals?

(b) Assess the usefulness of these tests in distinguishing between metals and non-metals.


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Q6 :  

What are amphoteric oxides? Give two examples of amphoteric oxides.


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Q7 :  

Name two metals which will displace hydrogen from dilute acids, and two metals which will not.


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Q8 :  

In the electrolytic refining of a metal M, what would you take as the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte?


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Q9 :  

Pratyush took sulphur powder on a spatula and heated it. He collected the gas evolved by inverting a test tube over it, as shown in figure below.

(a) What will be the action of gas on

(i) dry litmus paper?

(ii) moist litmus paper?

(b) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction taking place.


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Q10 :  

State two ways to prevent the rusting of iron.


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Q11 :  

What type of oxides are formed when non-metals combine with oxygen?


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Q12 :  

Givereasons

(a) Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewellery.

(b) Sodium, potassium and lithium are stored under oil.

(c) Aluminium is a highly reactive metal, yet it is used to make utensils for cooking.

(d) Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction.


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Q13 :  

You must have seen tarnished copper vessels being cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice. Explain why these sour substances are effective in cleaning the vessels.


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Q14 :  

Differentiate between metal and non-metal on the basis of their chemical properties.


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Q15 :  

A man went door to door posing as a goldsmith. He promised to bring back the glitter of old and dull gold ornaments. An unsuspecting lady gave a set of gold bangles to him which he dipped in a particular solution. The bangles sparkled like new but their weight was reduced drastically. The lady was upset but after a futile argument the man beat a hasty retreat. Can you play the detective to find out the nature of the solution he had used?


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Q16 :  

Give reasons why copper is used to make hot water tanks and not steel (an alloy of iron).


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<< Previous Chapter 2 : Acids, Bases and Salts Next Chapter 4 : Carbon and its Compounds >>

Science : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 10th for Metals and Non-metals will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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