NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Unit 4

Carbon and its Compounds Class 10

Unit 4 Carbon and its Compounds Exercise Solutions

Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.

Compounds of carbon are defined as chemical substances containing carbon. More compounds of carbon exist than any other chemical element except for hydrogen. Organic carbon compounds are more abundant than inorganic carbon compounds.
In general bonds of carbon with other elements are covalent bonds. Carbon is tetravalent but carbon free radicals and carbenes occur as short-lived intermediates. Ions of carbon are carbocations and carbanions and are also short-lived. An important carbon property is catenation as the ability to form long carbon chains and rings.
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Question : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 61

Q1 :  

What would be the electron dot structure of carbon dioxide which has the formula CO2?


Answer :

Electron dot structure of CO2 is

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Q2 :  

What would be the electron dot structure of a molecule of sulphur which is made up of eight atoms of sulphur? (Hint - the eight atoms of sulphur are joined together in the form of a ring.)


Answer :

Electron dot structure of a sulphur molecule

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Q3 :  

How many structural isomers can you draw for pentane?


Answer :

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Q4 :  

What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?


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Q5 :  

What will be the formula and electron dot structure of cyclopentane?


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Q6 :  

Draw the structures for the following compounds.

(i) Ethanoic acid (ii) Bromopentane*

(iii) Butanone (iv) Hexanal

*Are structural isomers possible for bromopentane?


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Q7 :  

How would you name the following compounds?

(i)

(ii)

(iii)


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Q8 :  

Why is the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid an oxidation reaction?


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Q9 :  

A mixture of oxygen and ethyne is burnt for welding. Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used?


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Q10 :  

How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid?


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Q11 :  

What are oxidising agents?


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Q12 :  

Would you be able to check if water is hard by using a detergent?


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Q13 :  

People use a variety of methods to wash clothes. Usually after adding the soap, they 'beat' the clothes on a stone, or beat it with a paddle, scrub with a brush or the mixture is agitated in a washing machine. Why is agitation necessary to get clean clothes?


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<< Previous Chapter 3 : Metals and Non-metals Next Chapter 5 : Periodic Classification of Elements >>

Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 77

Q1 :  

Ethane, with the molecular formula C2H6 has

(a) 6 covalent bonds.

(b) 7 covalent bonds.

(c) 8 covalent bonds.

(d) 9 covalent bonds.


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Q2 :  

Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group

(a) carboxylic acid.

(b) aldehyde.

(c) ketone.

(d) alcohol.


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Q3 :  

While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that

(a) the food is not cooked completely.

(b) the fuel is not burning completely.

(c) the fuel is wet.

(d) the fuel is burning completely.


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Q4 :  

Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in CH3Cl.


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Q5 :  

Draw the electron dot structures for

(a) ethanoic acid.

(b) H2S.

(c) propanone.

(d) F2.


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Q6 :  

What is a homologous series? Explain with an example.


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Q7 :  

How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties?


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Q8 :  

Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also?


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Q9 :  

Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?


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Q10 :  

Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.


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Q11 :  

What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?


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Q12 :  

What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?


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Q13 :  

Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions:

C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C2H2 and CH4.


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Q14 :  

Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and cooking oil.


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Q15 :  

Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.


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<< Previous Chapter 3 : Metals and Non-metals Next Chapter 5 : Periodic Classification of Elements >>

Science : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 10th for Carbon and its Compounds will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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