Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) What is a mineral?
(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
(i) (a) Minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals,
e.g., iron ore and manganese. Minerals which do not contain
iron are called non-ferrous minerals, e.g., bauxite, lead and
(b) Conventional sources of energy are generally exhaustible and
polluting, e.g., firewood, coal and petroleum. Non
conventional sources of energy are usually inexhaustible and
non-polluting, e.g., solar, wind, tidal and atomic energy.
(ii) A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance
with a definable interior structure. Minerals are formed by a
combination of elements, and the mining of some minerals is very
(iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, molten/liquid and gaseous
minerals are forced upwards into the cracks. They then solidify
and form veins or lodes.
(iv) Mineral resources need to be conserved because they are
limited. It takes billions of years for them to
be replenished in nature. Continued extraction of ores leads
to increasing costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as
well as quantity.
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