NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Contemporary India Unit 5

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10

Unit 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Exercise Solutions

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure. It is different from a rock, which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals and does not have a specific chemical composition. The exact definition of a mineral is under debate, especially with respect to the requirement a valid species be abiogenic, and to a lesser extent with regard to it having an ordered atomic structure. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

There are over 4,900 known mineral species; over 4,660 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The diversity and abundance of mineral species is controlled by the Earth's chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish various species, and these properties in turn are influenced by the mineral's geological environment of formation.
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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 63

Q1 :  

Multiple choice questions

(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?

(a) coal

(b) bauxite

(c) gold

(d) zinc

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?

(a) bauxite

(b) mica

(c) iron ore

(d) copper

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?

(a) sedimentary rocks

(b) metamorphic rocks

(c) igneous rocks

(d) none of the above

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?

(a) oil

(b) uranium

(c) thorium

(d) coal

Answer :

(i) (b) bauxite

(ii) (b) mica

(iii) (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) (c) thorium

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Q2 :  

Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.

(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals

(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

(ii) What is a mineral?

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

Answer :

(i) (a) Minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals, e.g., iron ore and manganese. Minerals which do not contain iron are called non-ferrous minerals, e.g., bauxite, lead and gold.

(b) Conventional sources of energy are generally exhaustible and polluting, e.g., firewood, coal and petroleum. Non conventional sources of energy are usually inexhaustible and non-polluting, e.g., solar, wind, tidal and atomic energy.

(ii) A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable interior structure. Minerals are formed by a combination of elements, and the mining of some minerals is very profitable.

(iii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks, molten/liquid and gaseous minerals are forced upwards into the cracks. They then solidify and form veins or lodes.

(iv) Mineral resources need to be conserved because they are limited. It takes billions of years for them to be replenished in nature. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as well as quantity.

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Q3 :  

Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.

(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Answer :

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