What are the different forms of power sharing in modern
democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies:
Horizontal division of power: It is the sharing
of power among the different organs of government. The division
of government into the executive, the legislature and the
judiciary is an example of horizontal division of power. In
such a power sharing arrangement, different organs of
government, placed at the same level, exercise different powers.
This separation of powers ensures that no organ exercises
unlimited power. Each organ checks the others, thereby putting in
place a system of checks and balances. The division of power
between the Council of Ministers headed by the Indian Prime
Minister, the Parliament of India and the Indian Supreme Court is
an example of this kind of power sharing.
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of
power among governments at different levels â€”
a general government for the entire country and governments at
the provincial or regional level. For example, in India, the
Constitution defines the way power is to be
shared between the Central or Union government and the
various State governments. There are certain matters on which
only the Central government can take decisions, while there are
others on which only an individual state government has an
exclusive right for decision making.
Division of power among social groups: Power can
also be shared among different groups which differ socially. The
system of 'community government' in Belgium is an example of this
type of power division. This government is elected by people
belonging to one language community (Dutch, French and
German-speaking), and has the power to take decisions regarding
cultural, educational and language-related issues.
The system of reserved constituencies in India is another
Division of power between political parties, pressure
groups and movements: Political parties are the
organisations which aim to control power by contesting elections.
In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among the
various contenders for power (the different political parties or
the different alliances comprising political parties). Such a
freedom of choice entails competition among the different
parties, which in turn ensures that power does not remain in
one hand, and is shared among different political parties
representing different ideologies and social groups.
Pressure groups and movements also share governmental power,
either through participation in governmental committees or by
influencing the decision-making process.
Answer needs Correction? Click Here