(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National
Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation
(a) Colonisation affected
freedom, and nationalist sentiments surged during the
process of struggle against imperial domination. The sense of
oppression and exploitation became a common bond for people from
different walks of life, and this resulted in the growth of
nationalist ideals. Thus, growth of nationalism in the colonies
is linked to anti-colonial movements.
(b) During the First World War, the British army
conducted forced recruitment from rural areas in
India. To finance the defence expenditure, high custom
duties and income taxes were imposed. Also, during
1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, thereby
resulting in acute food shortages. All this caused extensive
anger and opposition against the British colonial rule, and
the national movement of India headed towards a stronger, more
(c) The Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly through the Imperial
Legislative Council despite opposition from Indian members. It
gave the government autocratic powers to repress political
activities besides allowing it to detain political prisoners
without a trial, for two years. The Indian were outraged by this
act as it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive,
and hurt national sentiments and dignity.
(d) Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due
to various incidents of violence perpetrated by the masses,
especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where the people
clashed with the police, setting a police-station on fire.
Gandhiji felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass
struggle, and that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for
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