NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science India and the Contemporary World Unit 5

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10

Unit 5 The Age of Industrialisation Exercise Solutions

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Write in briefdiscuss : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 126

Q1 :  

Explain the following:

(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.

(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.

(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.


Answer :

(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it speeded up the spinning process, and consequently, reduced labour demand. This caused a valid fear of unemployment among women working in the woollen industry. Till date, they had survived on hand spinning, but this was placed in peril by the new machine.

(b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages because production in urban areas could not be increased due to the presence of powerful trade guilds. These maintained control over production, regulated prices and competition, and restricted the entry of new people in the trade. Monopolisation was also a common tactic. In the countryside, there were no such rules, and impoverished peasants welcomed these merchants.

(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century on account of the growing power of European companies in trade with India. They secured many concessions from local courts as well as the monopoly rights to trade. This led to a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly from where local merchants had operated. Exports slowed and local banks here went bankrupt.

(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India to establish a more direct control over the weavers, free of the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade. The gomasthas were the paid servants who supervised the weavers, collected supplies and examined the quality of cloth. The gomasthas ensured that all management and control of the cloth industry came under the British. This helped in eliminating competition, controlling costs and ensuring regular supplies of cotton and silk products.

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Q2 :  

Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?


Answer :

Some industrialists in nineteenth-century England preferred hand labour over machines because there was no labour shortage in the market, and as a result, there was no problem of high wage costs either. Industrialists did not wish to replace hand labour with machines that would require large capital investment. Also, in industries where the production and amount of labour required were dependent on the seasons, hand labour was preferred for its lower costs. Apart from this, many goods could only be manufactured by hand. Machines could provide mass quantities of a uniform product. But the demand was for intricate designs and shapes; this required human skill, and not mechanical technology. Handmade products also stood for refinement and class status. It was commonly believed that machine-made goods were for export to the colonies.

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Q3 :  

Write True or False against each statement:

(a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.

(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.

(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.

(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.


Answer :

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Q4 :  

How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?


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Q5 :  

Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.


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Q6 :  

Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.


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Q7 :  

Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?


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