NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19

Excretory Products and their Elimination Class 11

Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 300

Q1 :  

Define Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)


Answer :

Glomerular filtration rate is the amount of glomerular filtrate formed in all the nephrons of both the kidneys per minute. In a healthy individual, it is about 125 mL/minute. Glomerular filtrate contains glucose, amino acids, sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid, ketone bodies, and large amounts of water.

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Q2 :  

Explain the autoregulatory mechanism of GFR.


Answer :

The mechanism by which the kidney regulates the glomerular filtration rate is autoregulative. It is carried out by the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is a microscopic structure located between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron.

It plays a role in regulating the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. When there is a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, it activates the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin. This stimulates the glomerular blood flow, thereby bringing the GFR back to normal. Renin brings the GFR back to normal by the activation of the renin-angiotensin mechanism.

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Q3 :  

Indicate whether the following statements are true or false:

(a) Micturition is carried out by a reflex.

(b) ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic.

(c) Protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman's capsule.

(d) Henle's loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.

(e) Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.


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Q4 :  

Give a brief account of the counter current mechanism.


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Q5 :  

Describe the role of liver, lungs and skin in excretion.


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Q6 :  

Explain micturition.


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Q7 :  

Match the items of column Iwith those of column II:

Column I

Column II

(a)

Ammonotelism

(i)

Birds

(b)

Bowman's capsule

(ii)

Water reabsorption

(c)

Micturition

(iii)

Bony fish

(d)

Uricotelism

(iv)

Urinary bladder

(d)

ADH

(v)

Renal tubule


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Q8 :  

What is meant by the term osmoregulation?


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Q9 :  

Terrestrial animals are generally either ureotelic or uricotelic, not ammonotelic, why?


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Q10 :  

What is the significance of juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) in kidney function?


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Q11 :  

Name the following:

(a) A chordate animal having flame cells as excretory structures

(b) Cortical portions projecting between the medullary pyramids in the human kidney

(c) A loop of capillary running parallel to the Henle's loop.


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Q12 :  

Fill in the gaps:

(a) Ascending limb of Henle's loop is ____________to water whereas the descending limb is___________to it.

(b) Reabsorption of water from distal parts of the tubules is facilitated by hormone____________.

(c) Dialysis fluid contains all the constituents as in plasma except   ________.

(d) A healthy adult human excretes (on an average) _______ gm of urea/day.


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<< Previous Chapter 18 : Body Fluids and Circulation Next Chapter 20 : Locomotion and Movement >>

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