NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5

Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11

Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 82

Q1 :  

What is meant by modification of root? What type of modification of root is found in the

(a) Banyan tree

(b) Turnip

(c) Mangrove trees


Answer :

Primarily, there are two types of root systems found in plants, namely the tap root system and fibrous root system. The main function of the roots is to absorb water and minerals from the soil. However, roots are also modified to perform various other functions. The roots of some plants act as storage sites for food, some provide support to massive plant structures, while others absorb oxygen from the atmosphere.

Roots and its modifications in various plants:

(a) Banyan tree

The banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis) has massive pillar-like adventitious roots arising from the aerial part of the stem. These roots grow towards the ground and provide support to the tree. Such roots are called prop roots.

(b) Turnip

The roots of turnip (Brassica rape) help in the storage of food. Similar food-storing roots are found in radishes, carrots, and sweet potatoes.

(c) Mangrove tree

The roots of mangrove plants grow vertically upwards from the soil for the absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere as the soil is poorly aerated. These types of roots are called pneumatophores.

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Q2 :  

Justify the following statements on the basis of external features

(i) Underground parts of a plant are not always roots

(ii) Flower is a modified shoot


Answer :

(i) Various parts of plants are modified into underground structures to perform various functions such as stems, leaves, and even fruits.

The stems in ginger and banana are underground and swollen due to storage of food. They are called rhizomes. Similarly, corm is an underground stem in Colocasia and Zamin-khand. The tips of the underground stem in potato become swollen due to the accumulation of food and forms tuber. Tubers bear eyes, which are subtended by a leaf scar. Basal leaves in onions become fleshy because of the accumulation of food. In peanuts, the flower after fertilization gets pushed inside the soil by growing a flower stalk. The formation of fruits and seeds takes place inside the soil.

(ii) During the flowering season, the apical meristem gives rise to the floral meristem. The axis of the stem gets condensed, while the internodes lie near each other. Instead of leaves, various floral appendages arise from the node. Therefore, it can be said that the flower is a modified shoot.

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Q3 :  

How is pinnately compound leaf different from palmately compound leaf?


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Q4 :  

Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy?


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Q5 :  

Define the following terms:

(a) Aestivation

(b) Placentation

(c) Actinomorphic

(d) Zygomorphic

(e) Superior ovary

(f) Perigynous flower

(g) Epipetalous Stamen


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Q6 :  

Differentiate between

(a) Racemose and cymose inflorescence

(b) Fibrous roots and adventitious roots

(c) Apocarpous and syncarpous ovary


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Q7 :  

Draw the labelled diagram of the following:

(i) Gram seed

(ii) V.S. of maize seed


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Q8 :  

Describe modifications of stem with suitable examples


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Q9 :  

Take one flower each of families Fabaceae and Solanaceae and write its semi-technical description. Also draw their floral diagrams after studying them.


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Q10 :  

Describe the various types of placentations found in flowering plants.


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Q11 :  

What is a flower? Describe the parts of a typical angiosperm flower?


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Q12 :  

How do the various leaf modifications help plants?


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Q13 :  

Define the term inflorescence. Explain the basis for the different types of inflorescence in flowering plants.


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Q14 :  

Write the floral formula of an actinomorphic bisexual, hypogynous flower with five united sepals, five free petals. Five free stamens and two united carpals with superior ovary and axile placentation.


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Q15 :  

Describe the arrangement of floral members in relation to their insertion on thalamus?


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<< Previous Chapter 4 : Animal Kingdom Next Chapter 6 : Anatomy of Flowering Plants >>

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