# NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 7

## Unit III- Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issu... Class 11

### Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 134

Q1 :

Who is a worker?

People work for earning their livelihood. A person who is involved in production activity contributing to the flow of goods and services in the economy is called a worker. In other words, a worker is regarded as an economic agent who contributes to the production of goods and services, thereby, to the GDP during a particular year. A worker renders services to others and receives rewards in the form of wages, salaries or in kind. Hence, we can say that when an individual is engaged in a production activity or self employed and contributes to the generation of GDP, then, that person is referred to as a worker. For example, a doctor, an engineer working in a factory, etc.

Q2 :

Define worker-population ratio.

Worker-Population ratio is defined as the proportion of population that is actively contributing to the production of goods and services. It is measured by the ratio between the country's workforce and its total population. This ratio acts as an indicator for assessing the employment level in a particular country at any point of time. Higher the worker-population ratio higher is the engagement of people in the productive activities and vice-versa. Worker-population ratio is estimated by dividing the total work force by the total population and multiplying by 100. Algebraically,

Q3 :

Are the following workers â€” a beggar, a thief, a smuggler, a gambler? Why?

Q4 :

Find the odd man out (i) owner of a saloon (ii) a cobbler (iii) a cashier in Mother Dairy (iv) a tuition master (v) transport operator (vi) construction worker.

Q5 :

The newly emerging jobs are found mostly in the ____________sector.

(service/manufacturing).

Q6 :

An establishment with four hired workers is known as __________ (formal/informal) sector establishment.

Q7 :

Raj is going to school. When he is not in school, you will find him working in his farm. Can you consider him as a worker? Why?

Q8 :

Compared to urban women, more rural women are found working. Why?

Q9 :

Meena is a housewife. Besides taking care of household chores, she works in the cloth shop which is owned and operated by her husband. Can she be considered as a worker? Why?

Q10 :

Find the odd man out (i) rickshaw puller who works under a rick- shaw owner (ii) mason (iii) mechanic shop worker (iv) shoeshine boy.

Q11 :

The following table shows distribution of workforce in India for the year 1972-73. Analyse it and give reasons for the nature of workforce distribution. You will notice that the data is pertaining to the situation in India 30 years ago!

 Place of Residence Workforce (in millions) Male Female Total Rural Urban 125 32 69 7 195 39

Q12 :

The following table shows the population and worker population ratio for India in 1999-2000. Can you estimate the workforce (urban and total) for India?

 Region Estimates of population (in crores) Worker Population Ratio

Q13 :

Why are regular salaried employees more in urban areas than in rural areas?

Q14 :

Why are less women found in regular salaried employment?

Q15 :

Analyse the recent trends in sectoral distribution of workforce in India.

Q16 :

Compared to the 1970s, there has hardly been any change in the distribution of workforce across various industries. Comment.

Q17 :

Do you think that in the last 50 years, employment generated in the country is commensurate with the growth of GDP in India? How?

Q18 :

Do you think that in the last 50 years, employment generated in the country is commensurate with the growth of GDP in India? How?

Q19 :

Victor is able to get work only for two hours in a day. Rest of the day, he is looking for work. Is he unemployed? Why? What kind of jobs could persons like Victor is doing?

Q20 :

You are residing in a village. If you are asked to advice the village panchayat, what kinds of activities would you suggest for the improvement of your village which would also generate employment.

Q21 :

Who is a casual wage labourer?