NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Economics Indian Economic Development Chapter 8

Unit III- Infrastructure Class 11

Chapter 8 Unit III- Infrastructure Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 159

Q1 :  

Explain the term infrastructure.


Answer :

The term infrastructure refers to the underlying tangible and organisational structures that are essential for the smooth and prosperous functioning of an economy. In other words, infrastructure is regarded as a core support system that enables an economy to grow and develop. Generally, the term infrastructure means technical structure such as roads, transport, communication, bridges, dams, power, public institutions like schools, hospitals, etc. These structures not only serve as basic input for various economic activities like production, investment, but also enable an economy to break the shackles of traditional and primitive social structures and customs. The difference between a developed country and an underdeveloped country can be mainly attributed to the lack of sufficient and technically advanced infrastructure in the latter. Infrastructure has two-fold benefits- as an input and as a support system. Infrastructure as an input (roads, bank and power) facilitates the production process and attracts investment from domestic as well as from foreign investors. Infrastructure as a support system (such as schools, hospital) develops the quality of human capital by imparting quality and technical education and health facilities. This raises the standard and quality of living and helps the economy to eradicate major economic problems like poverty, unemployment and inequality. Hence, it can be concluded that the presence of quality and sufficient infrastructure is a necessary and sufficient condition for accomplishing economic growth and development.

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Q2 :  

Explain the two categories into which infrastructure are divided. How are both interdependent?


Answer :

Infrastructure is broadly classified under two categories:

a. Economic infrastructure

b. Social infrastructure

Economic Infrastructurerefers to the elements of economic change that aid in the process of production and distribution. It improves the quality of economic resources and, thus, raises the productivity of the economy as a whole. In this way, it serves as a support system to economic growth. Energy, transportation, communication, banking and financial institutions are some of the examples of economic infrastructure. Greater the economic infrastructure, greater will be the production and more generation of employment opportunities. Thus, expenditure incurred on the economic infrastructure can be regarded as a necessary condition for economic growth. 

Social Infrastructure refers to all those facilities and institutions that enhance the quality of human capital. Educational institutions, hospitals, nursing homes, housing facilities etc. are some of the examples of social infrastructures. The availability of such infrastructures raises the human productivity, thereby, improves the quality of standard of living. Unlike, economic infrastructure, social infrastructure indirectly increase the productivity and production of goods and services. For example, availability of better health care and medical facilities enable a perennial supply of healthy workforce that in turn is reflected in the form of increased production levels. 

Both economic and social infrastructures are interdependent on and complementary to each other. While economic infrastructure fosters economic growth, social infrastructure enhances the quality of standard of living and thereby leads to the welfare of the economy as a whole. The combined effect of these two infrastructures contributes to the prosperity of the economy. The economic growth attained with the help of economic infrastructure is imperfect without t human development which is attained by means of social infrastructure. Thus, one infrastructure supports the other. 

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Q3 :  

How do infrastructure facilities boost production?


Answer :

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Q4 :  

Infrastructure contributes to the economic development of a country. Do you agree? Explain.


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Q5 :  

What is the state of rural infrastructure in India?


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Q6 :  

What is the significance of energy? Differentiate between commercial and non-commercial sources of energy.


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Q7 :  

What are the three basic sources of generating power?


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Q8 :  

What do you mean by transmission and distribution losses? How can they be reduced?


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Q9 :  

What are the various non-commercial sources of energy?


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Q10 :  

Justify that energy crisis can be overcome with the use of renewable sources of energy.


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Q11 :  

How has the consumption pattern of energy changed over the years?


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Q12 :  

How are the rates of consumption of energy and economic growth connected?


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Q13 :  

What problems are being faced by the power sector in India?


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Q14 :  

Discuss the reforms which have been initiated recently to meet the energy crisis in India.


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Q15 :  

What are the main characteristics of health of the people of our country?


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Q16 :  

What is a global burden of disease?


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Q17 :  

Discuss the main drawbacks of our health care system.


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Q18 :  

How has women's health become a matter of great concern?


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Q19 :  

Describe the meaning of public health. Discuss the major public health measures undertaken by the state in recent years to control diseases.


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Q20 :  

Differentiate the six systems of Indian medicine.


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Q21 :  

How can we increase the effectiveness of health care programmes?


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<< Previous Chapter 7 : Unit III- Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issu... Next Chapter 9 : Unit III- Environment and Sustainable Development >>

Indian Economic Development - Economics : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 11th for Unit III- Infrastructure will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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