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**Exercise : ** Solutions of Questions on Page Number : **134**

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Q1 :
**
**

The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if the following quantities are positive or negative:

(a) work done by a man in lifting a bucket out of a well by means of a rope tied to the bucket.

(b) work done by gravitational force in the above case,

(c) work done by friction on a body sliding down an inclined plane,

(d) work done by an applied force on a body moving on a rough horizontal plane with uniform velocity,

(e) work done by the resistive force of air on a vibrating pendulum in bringing it to rest.

**Answer :**

**(a)** Positive

In the given case, force and displacement are in the same direction. Hence, the sign of work done is positive. In this case, the work is done on the bucket.

**(b)** Negative

In the given case, the direction of force (vertically downward) and displacement (vertically upward) are opposite to each other. Hence, the sign of work done is negative.

**(c)** Negative

Since the direction of frictional force is opposite to the direction of motion, the work done by frictional force is negative in this case.

**(d)** Positive

Here the body is moving on a rough horizontal plane. Frictional force opposes the motion of the body. Therefore, in order to maintain a uniform velocity, a uniform force must be applied to the body. Since the applied force acts in the direction of motion of the body, the work done is positive.

**(e)** Negative

The resistive force of air acts in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the pendulum. Hence, the work done is negative in this case.

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Q2 :
**
**

A body of mass 2 kg initially at rest moves under the action of an applied horizontal force of 7 N on a table with coefficient of kinetic friction = 0.1.

Compute the

(a) work done by the applied force in 10 s,

(b) work done by friction in 10 s,

(c) work done by the net force on the body in 10 s,

(d) change in kinetic energy of the body in 10 s,

and interpret your results.

**Answer :**

Mass of the body,
*m*= 2 kg

Applied force, *F* = 7
N

Coefficient of kinetic friction,
* µ*= 0.1

Initial velocity, *u*=
0

Time, *t* = 10 s

The acceleration produced in the body by the applied force is given by Newton's second law of motion as:

Frictional force is given as:

*f*=
* µm*g

= 0.1 ×2 ×9.8 = â€“ 1.96 N

The acceleration produced by the frictional force:

Totalacceleration of the body:

The distance travelled by the body is given by the equation of motion:

**(a)** Work done by the applied
force,
*W*_{a}=
*F*
×*s*
= 7
×126 = 882
J

**(b)** Work done by the frictional
force,
*W*_{f}_{=}
*F*×
*s*= â€“1.96
×126 =
â€“247 J

**(c)** Net force = 7 +
(â€“1.96) = 5.04 N

Work done by the net force,
*W*_{net}=
5.04
×126 = 635
J

**(d)** From the first equation of motion,
final velocity can be calculated as:

*v*= *u*
+ *at*

= 0 + 2.52 ×10 = 25.2 m/s

Change in kinetic energy

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Q3 :
**
**

Given in Fig. 6.11 are examples of some potential energy functions in one dimension. The total energy of the particle is indicated by a cross on the ordinate axis. In each case, specify the regions, if any, in which the particle cannot be found for the given energy. Also, indicate the minimum total energy the particle must have in each case. Think of simple physical contexts for which these potential energy shapes are relevant.

**Answer :**

Q4 :
**
**

The potential energy function for a particle executing
linear simple harmonic motion is given by
*V*(*x*)
*=kx*^{2}*/*2,
where *k* is the force constant of
the oscillator. For *k =* 0.5 N
m^{-1}, the
graph of
*V*(*x*)
versus *x* is shown in Fig. 6.12.
Show that a particle of total energy 1 J moving under this
potential must 'turn
back' when it
reaches *x* =
± 2 m.

**Answer :**

Q5 :
**
**

Answer the following:

(a) The casing of a rocket in flight burns up due to friction. At whose expense is the heat energy required for burning obtained? The rocket or the atmosphere?

(b) Comets move around the sun in highly elliptical orbits. The gravitational force on the comet due to the sun is not normal to the comet's velocity in general. Yet the work done by the gravitational force over every complete orbit of the comet is zero. Why?

(c) An artificial satellite orbiting the earth in very thin atmosphere loses its energy gradually due to dissipation against atmospheric resistance, however small. Why then does its speed increase progressively as it comes closer and closer to the earth?

(d) In Fig. 6.13(i) the man walks 2 m carrying a mass of 15 kg on his hands. In Fig. 6.13(ii), he walks the same distance pulling the rope behind him. The rope goes over a pulley, and a mass of 15 kg hangs at its other end. In which case is the work done greater?

Fig. 6.13

**Answer :**

Q6 :
**
**

Underline the correct alternative:

(a) When a conservative force does positive work on a body, the potential energy of the body increases/decreases/remains unaltered.

(b) Work done by a body against friction always results in a loss of its kinetic/potential energy.

(c) The rate of change of total momentum of a many-particle system is proportional to the external force/sum of the internal forces on the system.

(d) In an inelastic collision of two bodies, the quantities which do not change after the collision are the total kinetic energy/total linear momentum/total energy of the system of two bodies.

**Answer :**

Q7 :
**
**

State if each of the following statements is true or false. Give reasons for your answer.

(a) In an elastic collision of two bodies, the momentum and energy of each body is conserved.

(b) Total energy of a system is always conserved, no matter what internal and external forces on the body are present.

(c) Work done in the motion of a body over a closed loop is zero for every force in nature.

(d) In an inelastic collision, the final kinetic energy is always less than the initial kinetic energy of the system.

**Answer :**

Q8 :
**
**

Answer carefully, with reasons:

(a) In an elastic collision of two billiard balls, is the total kinetic energy conserved during the short time of collision of the balls (i.e. when they are in contact)?

(b) Is the total linear momentum conserved during the short time of an elastic collision of two balls?

(c) What are the answers to (a) and (b) for an inelastic collision?

(d) If the potential energy of two billiard balls depends only on the separation distance between their centres, is the collision elastic or inelastic? (Note, we are talking here of potential energy corresponding to the force during collision, not gravitational potential energy).

**Answer :**

Q9 :
**
**

A body is initially at rest. It undergoes one-dimensional
motion with constant acceleration. The power delivered to it at
time *t* is proportional to

(i) (ii)
*t* (iii) (iv)

**Answer :**

Q10 :
**
**

A body is moving unidirectionally under the influence of a
source of constant power. Its displacement in
time *t* is proportional to

(i) (ii)
*t* (iii) (iv)

**Answer :**

Q11 :
**
**

A body constrained to move along the
*z*-axis of a coordinate system is
subject to a constant force **F**
given by

Where are unit vectors along the
*x*-, *y*-
and *z*-axis of the system
respectively. What is the work done by this force in moving the
body a distance of 4 m along the
*z*-axis?

**Answer :**

Q12 :
**
**

An electron and a proton are detected in a
cosmic ray experiment, the first with kinetic energy
10 keV, and the second with 100 keV. Which is faster, the
electron or the proton? Obtain the ratio of their speeds.
(electron mass = 9.11
x
10^{-31}kg,
proton mass = 1.67
x
10^{-27}kg,
1 eV = 1.60
x
10^{-19}J).

**Answer :**

Q13 :
**
**

A rain drop of radius 2 mm falls from a height of 500 m
above the ground. It falls with decreasing acceleration (due to
viscous resistance of the air) until at half its original height,
it attains its maximum (terminal) speed, and moves with uniform
speed thereafter. What is the work done by the gravitational
force on the drop in the first and second half of its journey?
What is the work done by the resistive force in the entire
journey if its speed on reaching the ground is 10 m
s^{-1}?

**Answer :**

Q14 :
**
**

A molecule in a gas container hits a horizontal wall with
speed 200
ms^{-1}
and angle 30° with the normal,
and rebounds with the same speed. Is momentum conserved in the
collision? Is the collision elastic or inelastic?

**Answer :**

Q15 :
**
**

A pump on the ground floor of a building can pump up water
to fill a tank of volume 30
m^{3}in 15 min. If the tank is
40 m above the ground, and the efficiency of the pump is 30%, how
much electric power is consumed by the pump?

**Answer :**

Q16 :
**
**

Two identical ball bearings in contact with each other and
resting on a frictionless table are hit head-on by another ball
bearing of the same mass moving initially with a speed
*V*. If the collision is elastic, which
of the following figure is a possible result after
collision?

**Answer :**

Q17 :
**
**

The bob A of a pendulum released from 30° to the vertical hits another bob B of the same mass at rest on a table as shown in Fig. 6.15. How high does the bob A rise after the collision? Neglect the size of the bobs and assume the collision to be elastic.

**Answer :**

Q18 :
**
**

The bob of a pendulum is released from a horizontal position. If the length of the pendulum is 1.5 m, what is the speed with which the bob arrives at the lowermost point, given that it dissipated 5% of its initial energy against air resistance?

**Answer :**

Q19 :
**
**

A trolley of mass 300 kg carrying a sandbag of 25 kg is
moving uniformly with a speed of 27 km/h on a frictionless track.
After a while, sand starts leaking out of a hole on the floor of
the trolley at the rate of 0.05 kg
s^{-1}. What
is the speed of the trolley after the entire sand bag is
empty?

**Answer :**

Q20 :
**
**

A body of mass 0.5 kg travels in a straight line with
velocity where. What is the work
done by the net force during its displacement from
*x* = 0 to *x*
= 2 m?

**Answer :**

Q21 :
**
**

The blades of a windmill sweep out a circle of area
*A*. (a) If the wind flows at a
velocity *v* perpendicular to the
circle, what is the mass of the air passing through it in
time *t*?(b) What is
the kinetic energy of the air? (c) Assume that the windmill
converts 25% of the
wind's energy
into electrical energy, and that *A*
= 30 m^{2},
*v* = 36 km/h and the density of air is
1.2 kg
m^{-3}. What
is the electrical power produced?

**Answer :**

Q22 :
**
**

A person trying to lose weight (dieter) lifts a 10 kg mass,
one thousand times, to a height of 0.5 m each time.
Assume that the potential energy lost each time she lowers the
mass is dissipated. (a) How much work does she do against the
gravitational force? (b) Fat supplies 3.8
x
10^{7} J of energy per kilogram
which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency
rate. How much fat will the dieter use up?

**Answer :**

Q23 :
**
**

A family uses 8 kW of power. (a) Direct solar energy is incident on the horizontal surface at an average rate of 200 W per square meter. If 20% of this energy can be converted to useful electrical energy, how large an area is needed to supply 8 kW? (b) Compare this area to that of the roof of a typical house.

**Answer :**

Q24 :
**
**

A bullet of mass 0.012 kg and horizontal speed 70
ms^{-1}strikes
a block of wood of mass 0.4 kg and instantly comes to rest with
respect to the block. The block is suspended from the ceiling by
means of thin wires. Calculate the height to which the block
rises. Also, estimate the amount of heat produced in the
block.

**Answer :**

Q25 :
**
**

Two inclined frictionless tracks, one gradual and the other
steep meet at A from where two stones are allowed to slide down
from rest, one on each track (Fig. 6.16). Will the stones reach
the bottom at the same time? Will they reach there with the same
speed? Explain. Given
*ÃŽÂ¸*_{1}=
30°,
*ÃŽÂ¸*_{2}=
60°,
and *h* = 10 m, what are the
speeds and times taken by the two stones?

**Answer :**

Q26 :
**
**

A 1 kg block situated on a rough incline is connected to a
spring of spring constant 100
Nm^{-1}as
shown in Fig. 6.17. The block is released from rest with the
spring in the unstretched position. The block moves 10 cm down
the incline before coming to rest. Find the coefficient of
friction between the block and the incline. Assume that the
spring has a negligible mass and the pulley is
frictionless.

**Answer :**

Q27 :
**
**

A bolt of mass 0.3 kg falls from the ceiling of an elevator
moving down with an uniform speed of 7 m
s^{-1}. It
hits the floor of the elevator (length of the elevator = 3 m) and
does not rebound. What is the heat produced by the impact? Would
your answer be different if the elevator were stationary?

**Answer :**

Q28 :
**
**

A trolley of mass 200 kg moves with a uniform speed of 36
km/h on a frictionless track. A child of mass 20 kg runs on the
trolley from one end to the other (10 m away) with a speed of 4
ms^{-1}relative
to the trolley in a direction opposite to the its motion, and
jumps out of the trolley. What is the final speed of the trolley?
How much has the trolley moved from the time the child begins to
run?

**Answer :**

Q29 :
**
**

Which of the following potential energy curves in Fig. 6.18
cannot possibly describe the elastic collision of two billiard
balls? Here *r* is the distance
between centres of the balls.

**Answer :**

Q30 :
**
**

Consider the decay of a free neutron at rest:
*n*
→
*p+
e*^{-}

Show that the two-body decay of this type must necessarily
give an electron of fixed energy and, therefore, cannot account
for the observed continuous energy distribution in the
*ÃŽÂ²*-decay of a
neutron or a nucleus (Fig. 6.19).

[Note: The simple result ofthis exercise was
one among the several arguments advanced by W. Pauli to predict
the existence of a third particle in the decay products of
*ÃŽÂ²*-decay. This
particle is known as neutrino. We now know that it is a particle
of intrinsic spin ½ (like
*e*^{-},
*p* or
*n*), but is neutral, and either massless
or having an extremely small mass (compared to the mass of
electron) and which interacts very weakly with matter. The
correct decay process of neutron is: *n*
→
*p +
e*^{-}+
ÃŽÂ½]

**Answer :**

Physics Part-1 - Physics : CBSE ** NCERT ** Exercise Solutions for Class 11th for ** Work, Energy And Power ** will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 3 - Motion In A Plane Class 11
- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 1 - Units And Measurements Class 11
- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 2 - Motion In A Straight Line Class 11
- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 4 - Laws Of Motion Class 11
- Physics Part-2 : Chapter 1 - Mechanical Properties Of Solids Class 11
- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 7 - Gravitation Class 11
- Physics Part-2 : Chapter 7 - Waves Class 11
- Physics Part-1 : Chapter 6 - System Of Particles And Rotational Motion Class 11
- Physics Part-2 : Chapter 4 - Thermodynamics Class 11