NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Introducing Sociology Chapter 4

Culture and Socialisation Class 11

Chapter 4 Culture and Socialisation Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 80

Q1 :  

How does the understanding of culture in social science differ from the everyday use of the word `culture'?


Answer :

The use of the word 'culture' in everyday life is limited, which refers to the artistic performances such as dance, music, painting, drama etc. But social science understands culture in a scientific and prescribed way that is not only limited to drawing and painting but more than it. Culture has shaped our life and the society as a whole. In sociological terms, culture implies the common understanding which is learnt and developed through social interaction and then passed on to the next generation.

Therefore, in everyday use, the term culture is used for individuals, whereas in sociology, it is used to denote the entire group or the society.

Edward Tylor was the first anthropologist to define culture that includes abstract and intangible dimensions. Later, Bronislaw Malinowski defined culture, which included the use of materials as well.

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Q2 :  

How can we demonstrate that the different dimensions of culture comprise a whole?


Answer :

There are three dimensions of culture cognitive, normative and material that comprise a whole.

(i) Cognitive: It refers to how we learn to process what we see and hear so as to give it a meaning. For example, looking at a flag and associating it with the country to which it belongs. Symbolising the waving of hand as a means of saying goodbye. Thus, every culture has given a different meaning to different actions.

(ii) Normative: It refers to the rules of conduct. Every society has some rules according to which its members have to behave. As a result, this behaviour and action of the individuals become the culture of that society.

(iii) Material: It includes any activity which is made possible by the means of materials. It also includes tools and machines, which is said to be a part of the culture.

In the present industrial societies, advanced technology and machines are used. Some societies use them in abundance such as, USA while some do not make much use of it, such as Afghanistan. Thus, use of various materials in different ways for various purposes shows the culture of that society.

Therefore, culture can be identified as material and non-material. For the proper and integrated functioning of the culture, both material and non-material dimensions work together as a whole. The use of materials having different notions and ways of understanding different signs and symbols with certain rules of conduct as a whole describes the culture of that society.

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Q3 :  

Compare two cultures with which you are familiar. Is it difficult not to be ethnocentric?


Answer :

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Q4 :  

Discuss two different approaches to studying cultural change.


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Q5 :  

Is cosmopolitanism something you associate with modernity? Observe and give examples of ethnocentrism.


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Q6 :  

What in your mind is the most effective agent of socialisation for your generation? How do you think it was different before?


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Introducing Sociology - Sociology : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 11th for Culture and Socialisation will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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