NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Introducing Sociology Chapter 5

Doing Sociology: Research Methods Class 11

Chapter 5 Doing Sociology: Research Methods Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 101

Q1 :  

Why is the question of a scientific method particularly important in sociology?


Answer :

The question of scientific method is important because it helps sociologists to acquire knowledge.

Sociologist deals with different societies whose culture may be similar or different. They have to conduct research and field work in which they need to take opinions and feelings of people or respondent in that area. Hence, sociologists try to adopt an objective point of view which is neutral and not based on one's own perception. Some sociologists like Emile Durkhiem believed that in order to study the society with objectivity, it is important to have a scientific approach. Therefore a need for scientific method was felt. He even carried out a scientific study on the phenomenon of 'suicide' by giving various rules in sociological method.

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Q2 :  

What are some of the reasons for `objectivity' being more complicated in social sciences, particularly disciplines like sociology?


Answer :

Objectivity means being unbiased, neutral or based on facts alone.

(i) In case of social science, especially sociology, objectivity becomes more complicated because, like every human, there are some notions perceived by sociologists which make it difficult for him/her to study the culture and norms of a different society in a neutral manner. This can lead to incorrect research.

(ii) The sociologist who is conducting a research can also get biased if the issues are related to his/her society and can imply his/her personal notions to that study. Hence, despite of being reflexive there are chances of unconscious bias.

(iii) There are many versions of truth in the social world. A boy and an old person would have different notions on a particular thing. A shopkeeper and a customer would have different ideas regarding the 'good price' of a product. Thus, there is no universal truth in social sciences, making them difficult to arrive at a conclusion.

(iv) Sociology is a 'multi-paradigmatic' science. There are different schools of thought that sometimes contradict each other. As a result, 'objectivity' becomes complicated in social sciences, especially sociology.

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Q3 :  

How do sociologists try to deal with these difficulties and strive for objectivity?


Answer :

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Q4 :  

What is meant by `reflexivity' and why is it important in sociology?


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Q5 :  

What are some of the things that ethnographers and sociologists do during participant observation?


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Q6 :  

What are the strengths and weaknesses of participant observation as a method?


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Q7 :  

What are the basic elements of the survey method? What is chief advantage of this method?


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Q8 :  

Describe some of the criteria involved in selecting a representative sample.


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Q9 :  

State some of the weaknesses of the survey method.


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Q10 :  

Describe main features of the interview as a research method.


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