NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 8

Human Health and Disease Class 12

Chapter 8 Human Health and Disease Exercise Solutions

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Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 164

Q1 :  

What are the various public health measures, which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?


Answer :

Public health measures are preventive measures which are taken to check the spread of various infectious diseases. These measures should be taken to reduce the contact with infectious agents.

Some of these methods are:

(1) Maintenance of personal and public hygiene:It is one of the most important methods of preventing infectious diseases. This measure includes maintaining a clean body, consumption of healthy and nutritious food, drinking clean water, etc. Public hygienic includes proper disposal of waste material, excreta, periodic cleaning, and disinfection of water reservoirs.

(2) Isolation: To prevent the spread of air-borne diseases such as pneumonia, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc., it is essential to keep the infected person in isolation to reduce the chances of spreading these diseases.

(3) Vaccination: Vaccination is the protection of the body from communicable diseases by administering some agent that mimics the microbe inside the body. It helps in providing passive immunizationto the body. Several vaccines are available against many diseases such as tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, etc.

(4) Vector Eradication: Various diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue, and chikungunya spread through vectors. Thus, these diseases can be prevented by providing a clean environment and by preventing the breeding of mosquitoes. This can be achieved by not allowing water to stagnate around residential areas. Also, measures like regular cleaning of coolers, use of mosquito nets and insecticides such as malathion in drains, ponds, etc. can be undertaken to ensure a healthy environment. Introducing fish such as Gambusia in ponds also controls the breeding of mosquito larvae in stagnant water.

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Q2 :  

In which way has the study of biology helped us to control infectious diseases?


Answer :

Various advancements that have occurred in the field of biology have helped us gain a better understanding to fight against various infectious diseases. Biology has helped us study the life cycle of various parasites, pathogens, and vectors along with the modes of transmission of various diseases and the measures for controlling them. Vaccination programmes against several infectious diseases such as small pox, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc. have helped eradicate these diseases. Biotechnology has helped in the preparation of newer and safer drugs and vaccines. Antibiotics have also played an important role in treating infectious diseases.

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Q3 :  

How does the transmission of each of the following diseases take place?

(a) Amoebiasis

(b) Malaria

(c) Ascariasis

(d) Pneumonia


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Q4 :  

What measure would you take to prevent water-borne diseases?


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Q5 :  

Discuss with your teacher what does 'a suitable gene' means, in the context of DNA vaccines.


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Q6 :  

Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.


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Q7 :  

The following are some well-known abbreviations, which have been used in this chapter. Expand each one to its full form:

(a) MALT

(b) CMI

(c) AIDS

(d) NACO

(e) HIV


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Q8 :  

Differentiate the following and give examples of each:

(a) Innate and acquired immunity

(b) Active and passive immunity


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Q9 :  

Draw a well-labelled diagram of an antibody molecule.


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Q10 :  

What are the various routes by which transmission of human immunodeficiency virus takes place?


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Q11 :  

What is the mechanism by which the AIDS virus causes deficiency of immune system of the infected person?


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Q12 :  

How is a cancerous cell different from a normal cell?


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Q13 :  

Explain what is meant by metastasis.


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Q14 :  

List the harmful effects caused by alcohol/drug abuse.


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Q15 :  

Do you think that friends can influence one to take alcohol/drugs? If yes, how may one protect himself/herself from such an influence?


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Q16 :  

Why is that once a person starts taking alcohol or drugs, it is difficult to get rid of this habit? Discuss it with your teacher.


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Q17 :  

In your view what motivates youngsters to take to alcohol or drugs and how can this be avoided?


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<< Previous Chapter 7 : Evolution Next Chapter 9 : Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production >>

Biology : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 12th for Human Health and Disease will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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