Answer the following questions.
(i) Why do the plates move?
(ii) What are exogenic and endogenic forces?
(iii) What is erosion?
(iv) How are flood plains formed?
(v) What are sand dunes?
(vi) How are beaches formed?
(vii) What are ox-bow lakes?
plates move around because of the movement of the molten magma
inside the Earth.
movements are divided on the basis of the forces which cause
them. The ones that work on the
surface are called exogenic forces while the ones that work in
interior are called endogenic forces. The erosional and
depositional activities of wind and water are examples of
exogenic forces. Earthquakes and volcanoes are examples of
(iii)Erosion is the
weathering or wearing away of the landscape by different agents
like wind, water and ice.
course through a plain, a river sometimes overflows its banks.
This leads to the flooding of the neighbouring areas. As it
floods, the river water deposits layers of fine soil and
sediments on its banks. This leads to the formation of a flat,
fertile flood plain.
(v)In deserts, when
wind blows, it lifts and transports sand from one place to
another. When it stops blowing, the sand particles fall and get
deposited in low hill-like structures called sand dunes.
and depositional activities of the sea waves give rise to
different coastal landforms. A beach is one such coastal
landform. It is formed when the sea waves deposit sediments along
the sea shore.
(vii)An ox-bow lake
is a crescent-shaped lake formed by a meandering river. During
its journey through a plain, a river twists and turns to form
meanders. Erosion and deposition occur constantly along the sides
of a meander, thereby causing the ends of its loop to come closer
and closer. In due course of time, the meander loop cuts off from
the river and forms a cut-off, crescent-shaped ox-bow
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