Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?
(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?
(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal
range of temperature and why?
(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar Coast?
(v) What are jet streams and how do they affect the climate of
(vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by
(vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?
(i) The controls affecting the climate
of India are: latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system,
distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features.
(ii) The climate of India is strongly
influenced by monsoon winds. Hence, it has a monsoon type of
(iii) The north-western part of India
comprising the Indian Desert experiences the highest diurnal
range of temperature. This is because of the fact that sand
(found in ample quantity in this region) gains and loses heat
very quickly. As a result of this phenomenon, there is a wide
difference between day and night temperatures in this region. The
day temperature may rise to 50°C and
drop down to near 15°C the same
(iv) The south-west monsoon winds are
responsible for rainfall along the Malabar Coast.
(v)Jet streams are a narrow belt of
high-altitude winds in the troposphere. The sub-tropical westerly
jet stream blowing south of the Himalayas are responsible for the
western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and
north-western parts of the country during the winter months. The
sub-tropical easterly jet stream blowing over peninsular India is
responsible for the tropical cyclones that affect the eastern
coastal regions of India during the monsoon as well as during the
October to November period.
(vi) Monsoon refers to the complete
reversal of winds over a large area leading to a change of
in monsoon refers to the wet and dry spells of the monsoon. In
other words, the monsoon rains take place for a few days at a
time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals.
(vii) Despite variations in temperature
conditions across India, a sense of unity is imposed by the
monsoon. The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the
associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons
that binds the entire country.
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