NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science India and the Contemporary World Unit 2

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9

Unit 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Exercise Solutions

<< Previous Chapter 1 : The French Revolution Next Chapter 3 : Nazism and the Rise of Hitler >>

Questions : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 48

Q1 :  

What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?


Answer :

The social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905 were variously beneficial and bad for the masses. 85% of Russia's population was agriculturist, far more than France or Germany with 40-50%. Industry was existent, but sporadically. Most of this was privately owned. Workers either came from villages, or migrated to cities for employment in factories. The industrial sector had its fair share of trouble with strikes in the textiles industry in 1896-97 and the metals industry in 1902.

At this time, the peasant community was deeply religious, but did not care much about the nobility. They believed that land must be divided amongst themselves. Since this was not possible due to feudal rights, the peasants had their own unique commune wherein wealth was shared out according to each family's needs.

Political parties were illegal before 1914. The Social Democratic Workers' Party (1898) was hence, illegal. Interestingly, the socialists believed that the peasants were "natural socialists" in their policy of equitable distribution of wealth. However, the Bolsheviks under Lenin wanted a disciplined group, and not farmers, in the party. While the Bolsheviks believed in controlling the number and quality of its members, the Mensheviks believed that the party should be open to all.

In the field of economic conditions, 1904 was a bad year for the workers. Due to rise in prices of essential goods, real wages decreased by 20%, leading to the famous St.Petersburg strike where 110,000 workers protested, demanding reduction in work hours and increase in wages. This strike started a series of events that are together known as the 1905 Revolution. During this revolution, there were strikes all over the country, universities closed down, and various professionals and workers established the Union of Unions, demanding the establishment of a constituent assembly.

These were the socio-economic and political conditions in pre-1905 Russia.

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q2 :  

In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?


Answer :

The working population in Russia was different from other countries in Europe before 1917 because not all Russian workers migrated from the villages to work in the industrial sector. Some of them continued to live in villages and went to work daily, to the towns. They were a divided group, socially and professionally, and this showed in their dress and manners too. Metal workers were the "aristocrats" of the working class because their occupation demanded more training and skill. Nevertheless, the working population was united on one front â€” strikes against work conditions and employer tyranny.

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q3 :  

Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?


Answer :

Please Register/Login to get access to all solutions Facebook Login
Q4 :  

Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.


Answer :

Please Register/Login to get access to all solutions Facebook Login
Q5 :  

What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?


Answer :

Please Register/Login to get access to all solutions Facebook Login
Q6 :  

Write a few lines to show what you know about:

  • kulaks

  • the Duma

  • women workers between 1900 and 1930

  • the Liberals

  • Stalin's collectivisation programme


Answer :

Please Register/Login to get access to all solutions Facebook Login
<< Previous Chapter 1 : The French Revolution Next Chapter 3 : Nazism and the Rise of Hitler >>

India and the Contemporary World - Social Science : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 9th for Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

Popular Articles