NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science India and the Contemporary World Unit 6

Peasants and Farmers Class 9

Unit 6 Peasants and Farmers Exercise Solutions

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Questions : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 137

Q1 :  

Explain briefly what the open field system meant to rural people in eighteenth-century England. Look at the system from the point of view of:

  • A rich farmer

  • A labourer

  • A peasant woman


Answer :

(a) A rich farmer:

As the prices of wool increased, rich farmers wanted to increase its production. Therefore, they began to privatise the best parts of the common land and open fields for themselves. This was done to ensure that their sheep would get good fodder. They also began to drive out poorer farmers, disallowing them from using common land for grazing.

(b) A labourer:

For the poor labourers, the common lands were essential for survival. They used to live with landowners, doing a number of odd jobs for them in return for board and lodging and a small pay. However, when the open field system began to disappear, labourers were paid wages and employed only at harvest time. This left them at the mercy of rich landowners and farmers.

(c) A peasant woman:

For peasant women, the open field system was a good way of community living wherein everything was shared between the rich and the poor. They would use the common lands for grazing their cattle, gathering fruits and collecting firewood. However, all these activities were negatively affected because of the disappearance of open fields.

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Q2 :  

Explain briefly the factors which led to the enclosures in England.


Answer :

The factors that led to the enclosures in England were primarily profit-based. When wool prices rose in the sixteenth century, rich farmers began to enclose the best pastures of common lands for their own cattle. Later, in the mid-eighteenth century, the British Parliament passed 4000 Acts legalising these enclosures which had earlier been an individual, and not state, enterprise. Enclosures came into being to enhance grain production since England's population was booming. Also, industrialisation and war needs made foodgrain prices soar, making it necessary to take steps to increase its production. They were also important for long-term investments on land and to plan crop rotations for maintaining soil fertility.

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Q3 :  

Why were threshing machines opposed by the poor in England?


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Q4 :  

Who was Captain Swing? What did the name symbolise or represent?


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Q5 :  

What was the impact of the westward expansion of settlers in the USA?


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Q6 :  

What were the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machines in the USA?


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Q7 :  

What lessons can we draw from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a bread basket to a dust bowl?


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Q8 :  

Write a paragraph on why the British insisted on farmers growing opium in India.


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Q9 :  

Why were Indian farmers reluctant to grow opium?


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India and the Contemporary World - Social Science : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 9th for Peasants and Farmers will be available online in PDF book form soon. The solutions are absolutely Free. Soon you will be able to download the solutions.

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